CPS methods for cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) and traffic signal control and optimization (TSC) allow for improvements regarding transport safety, driver comfort, and ecological balance. The main problem with Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) used in such scenarios are the volume and velocity of data produced by sensors of the system. Therefore, the processing is often split between Fog and Cloud.
Thus, the sensor data is initially processed in the fog, which is represented by locally deployed roadside units (RSUs) that collect and pre-process the V2X messages of the surrounding actors. The cloud is represented by the global traffic management centre (GTMC), which receives the pre-processed data from the different RSUs, and is responsible for maintaining a large picture of city traffic.
This DynaCon use case focuses on the deployment and maintenance of RSUs in combination with the GTMC. Currently, RSUs are configured at deployment time. If desired, operators change certain configurations (e.g. signal phases of traffic lights) on demand. Clearly, the time of detecting faulty behaviour and the reaction to the changing environment, e.g., an arriving ambulance or a traffic jam, is long. Smart RSU units could become autonomous by dynamically adapting to the changing environment and traffic situations. The RSU could recognize that the traffic flow is decreasing and adjust the signal plans on-the-fly according to the new situation to unwind the traffic jam.
The developed methods are used to solve signal phase calculation in different scenarios with different C-ITS performance measurements, i.e. maximizing intersection throughput or reducing waiting time.
Network operations must meet demanding requirements: very high availability (> 99.9%); optimal use of available resources (link
capacities, switches, routers, servers); and fast and effective reaction to unexpected events and anomalies (failure of network components, non-conforming or malicious use, attacks, etc.).
Currently, technical personnel of network operators is on standby 24/7 to provide manual intervention.
Alarms are triggered in the network operations center (NOC) if pre-specified thresholds of network parameters are surpassed. In case of alarms, engineers analyse the incidents and take remedial actions. Some incidents are well-known and easy to cope with. Anomalies that are completely new often require to be escalated to a team of engineers to restore normal network operation.
In summary, the situation today is that measures and efforts against network anomalies often depend on the individual(s) dealing with the problems. This potentially results in high costs, uncertainty w.r.t. actions’ efficacy and outcomes, and sub-optimal customer satisfaction. Given the usual stream of IP network monitoring data, the DynaCon system, based on a knowledge-/rule-based representation of the NOC engineers’ knowledge and established processes, will dynamically decide and advise about remedial
network operation actions in case of incidents and about network re-dimensioning steps.
Communication networks controlling power generation
Energy generation and distribution facilities must be coordinated in order to avoid blackouts and other dangerous events. In order to control the energy network, the companies equip their power generation facilities with sensors and communication networks that are able to transfer collected data to the control centers. In case communication between the generators and the center is disrupted, operators should take actions restructuring a data transmission network. The decisions about which alternative connections to use is based on the professional experience of the operators.
By means of modelling that expert knowledge and the data transmission networks, DynaCon should automate reconfiguration. In the phases of planning and deploying the networks, i.e. when the networks evolve and are being optimised, existing requirements
regarding radio connections and routing can be documented and modified in the knowledge base.
In productive networks, in the events of faults, the reconfiguration based on the DynaCon
system is intended to comply with all existing rules and to give the maintenance personnel a
decision-making aid. This will enable faster, safer and more consistent operations of the data
Operating trains in several European countries requires extensive planning, because there is a multitude of regulations, standards, and signalling systems in each country. Although planning the run of a train requires expert knowledge and much time,
it requires even more time to adjust for deviations from the plan (”2 days planning, 5 days
managing deviations''). Deviations are caused among others by delays, technical breakdowns,
or sickness of personnel and a quick response within minutes is necessary.
Therefore, transport & logistic companies should employ a 24/7-disposition operator who must react, usually by finding replacements. Due to the amount of regulations, this task is very time-consuming.
Often current software allows the railway dispatcher to check whether a configured train (freight specifics, locomotive, train
driver, route specifics) is valid. But the system does not help with reconfiguration upon change.
Excluding all locomotives that are not usable as a replacement, for example, would greatly
relieve the 24/7-disposition operator. Dynamic reconfiguration as proposed by DynaCon will
report which alternatives are viable ones and which replacements are invalid.